According to the UN World Population report, Eastern European countries are in top 10 of the world’s fastest shrinking (in terms of demography) countries in the world. According to the study,
Poland’s population is expected to shrink by 15 percent by 2050, which puts Poland in 9th position along with Hungary. The country with the biggest forecasted drop in population is Bulgaria (23 percent), followed by Latvia (22 percent) and Moldova (19 percent). The first country not from the CEE region is Japan where the population is expected to drop by 15 percent as well.
Overall, the global population is expected to reach nearly 10 billion people by 2050, with Africa’s population doubling in that time and five of the world’s six inhabited continents growing significantly.
The report gives three main reasons for the CEE region population problem. Low birth rates: for Poland, the total fertility rate is forecasted at 1.29 until 2020 and 1.36 till 2030. The level required for replacement of the population, in the long run, is around 2.1. Emigration, as many people from the region, left it to work and live in other EU member states, and low immigration, as very often a restrictive policy prevents people from other countries to boost the population.